Nepal is full of cultural, religious, natural and biodiversity riches. As our traditions, practices, rituals, belief, People have been following many natural plants and trees to maintain, respect and celebrates their rituals, culture, belief and practices for getting healthier and prosperity. So, some plants, trees are such sacred plants that we have been following from ancients time as birth to death. More than 80 different plants and trees and their parts and yields are basically used to maintain and perform such cultural activities as well as festivities too. Generally, we have been following many religions together and Hinduism and Buddhism are the most religions and theology believers have being using and worshiping Trees and Plants as getting reincarnations, as a symbol of deities, Gods, Goddess and also acquiring other supernatural strength, prosperity, and sufficient harvesting and so on. Basically What we have been performing such rituals and festival as following.
The PANCHA BHALLAP: The Pancha Bhallap is being made by leaves of five species of trees. They are; Ficus religiosa (Sacred Fig Tree), F. bengalensis, (Banyan) F. glomerata (Gular Tree- Dumri), Magnifera indica (Mango), and F. glaberrima (pakhari) must be offered to begin any ritual functions.
Nwaran : It is a ritual ceremony is being performed in 11 days of birth to give the name of newborn. where the priest performs firing wood by Acacia tatechu (Khayar), Holy Basil, (Tulasi), Coral Tree (Parijat), Sal (Shorea robusta)The TORAN: The weaving of varieties of flowers, leaves that are arranged in a long rope made by babiyo (Eulaliopsis binate – sabaigrass), which have to hang and flying around the place where is performing rituals or the way where is people and humans are being pass through. The place where any rituals activities are performed Mandap or Jangya.
Bratabanda : The sticks made of Prunnus cerasoides (Cherry – Painyu) and Butea monosperma (Bastard Teak – Palash) are essentials for bratabandha. Bratabandha is a kind of rituals where a boy is being received to wear holy thread and also a kinds of moral science teaching activities. Brahmin and Chhetri must hang threads made of cotton around their shoulders after bratabandha. Bratabandha is a ritual functions where a boy is supposed to enter in youth stages and is essential function to be a mankind.
Bel Bibaha: In a Newar Community, there is a culture called bel bibaha ( Stone apple – bel) marriage ritual. When a daughter very close to menarche or before the first menstruation the bel bibaha ritual must be performed to be marriage with an Aegle marmelos, and is to be kept for her whole life.
Teej Festival: Each woman may use of small stems of a shrub Achyranthes bidentata called datiwan as teeth brushes in Teej Festival, which is for getting purity and worshiping for goddess. It falls on the third day of the bright fortnight of Bhadra (August-September), where women are being together at their maternal home and a da of is women’s happiness.
Tihar Festival: The beds of Gompherna globasa (Globe Amarnath) flower and fruits of Jungles regia (Wallnut – Okhar) are to be offered to brothers from sisters in Tihar Festival as a symbol of long life and Victory. It is a ritual when sisters pray for long life and prosperity of brothers and is known as festivals of light and it fall on October.
Chautari Practice: when two trees are placing on the trail, or top of hills or junctions of trail. Trees marriage is practiced have been following to involve the symbolic marriage of one trees which is Ficus religiosa (Fig Tree) and another F. bengalensis (Banyan) placing nearby.
Ekadashi: The Ocimum spp (Holy Basil) is planted in special day in June- July on the dome shape Mandap and grown up for 4 months and the special ceremony called Tulsi marriage. The practice of everyday lightening in the evening at the Ocimum spp mandap is most common. The mandap is a dome shape temple in front of each house.
Tapari: The sal (Shorea robusta) leaves plates are essential for all ritual functions and is regarded as clean and purify (uncontaminated). The tapari is being used to have any kinds of rituals.
Shiva Gods Pray: The weeds made up of fruit of Elaeocarpus sphaericus (rudharksha) seeds or Ocimum spp (Holy Basil) stem are used to pray the god.
Supari: The Areca catechu (Supari or Palm Betel) fruits are essentials for all ritual functions.
The firewood from Ficus benjamina, Sal (Shorea robusta) are required to burn in fireworks at the centre of the Mandap.
Death Sanskar / Death Ritual: The death body must be transported in green bamboo up to the cremate places where it has to be set on fire near the bank of river called Ghat by Holy Basil, (Tulasi), Coral Tree (Parijat), Sal (Shorea robusta), Acacia tatechu (Khayar) and so on.
And some Plants and Trees are also being offered for gods as following;
F. religiosa ( Pipal), Eulaliopsis binate (Babiyo), Ocimum spp (Tulashi), Phyllanthus emblica (Amala) – God Bishnu
Ficus bengalensis (Bar), Aegle marmelos (Bel), Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha), Saraca indica (Ashok), Cannabis sativa (Ganja) – God Shiva
F. bemjamina, Cynodon dactylon (Swami Dubo) – Goddling Ganesh
Dsemotachya bipinnata (Kush), Butea monsperma (Palash) – Gods Bramha, Bishnu, Shiva
Some Very important medicinal and sacred plants and trees are in Nepal as following;
Nepali name: Species: English Name
Aank – Calotropis gigantea – Crown Flower
Aduwa – Zingiber officinale – Zinger
Akamaro / Datiwan – Solanum tubersum / Achyranthes bidentata
Amalaa – Phyllanthus emblica – Goosberry
Aanp –Magnifere indica – Mango
Asna – Termalelia alata –
Ashok – Saraca indica – Saroca asoca
Babiyo – Eulaliopsis binata – sabaigrass
Bans –Dendrocalamus spp – Giant or dragon Bamboo
Bar – Ficus bengalensis – Banyan
Baramase –Hibiscus rosasinensis – Chinese Hibiscus/Rose
Barley, Jau – Hordeum vulgare –
Bel – Aegle marmelos -Stone Apple
Besar – Curcuma longi -Turmeric
Bhalayo – Rhus succedanea – Japanese tallow
Bhang – Cannabis sativa – Cannabis
Bhimsen pati – Buddleja paniculata –
Bhogate – Citrus spp – Pomelo
Bibiro Citrus spp / Citrus Medica
Chameli – Jasminum spp – Jasmine
Chandan – Santalum album – Sandalwood
Chiuri – Bassia butyracea – Butter Tree
Dhatura – Datura stramonium – Thorn apple/ moon flower
Dhrusul – Solanum verbascifolium – Big Eggplant / Black nightshade
Dubo – Cynodon dactylon – Barmuda grass
Dumri – F. glomerata – Gular Tree
Faledo – Erythrina stricta – Coral Tree / Malayalam
Galaincha – Ficus spp –
Godawari – Chrysanthemum spp –
Gulaf – Rosa spp – Rose
Gurans – Rhododendron spp – Rhododendron
Gurjo – Tinospora Cordifolia -Giloya
Harro – Terminalia chebula Chebulic – Myrobalan
Jau – Hordeum vulgare – Barley
Jute – Corchorus capsularis –
Kabro – F. lacor – Java Fig
Kadam – Anthocephalus cadamba– Burflower Tree, Laran Pine
Kans- Sachharum spontaneum – Serio Grass
Kapas – Gossypium arborium -Cotton Tree
Kapur – Cinnamomum camphora -Camphorwood / Comphor Laaurel
Katahar – Artocarpus integrifolia -Jackfruit
Kera – Musa ferra – Banana
Keshar – Curcus sativus -Saffron Crocus
Ketuki – Yucca gloriosa – Dagger
Khayer – Acacia catechu – Black Cutch, cachou, cashoo, Japan Earth
Kush – Dsemotachya bipinnata -Halfa Grass/ Big cordgrass
Lalupate – Euphorbia pulcherima – Poinsettia /Christmas Flower
Lotus – Nelumbium nucifera –
Lutelahari – / –
Makhamali Ful – Gompherna globasa – Globe Amaranth
Manak – Rabies nigrum –
Mandar – / –
Mane paat – Cuauchun cuesicultion – Scrybb /Brushwood
Mango – Magnifera indica –
Mans – Phaseolus mungo – Black Gram
Nareshwar – Musea ferra – Iron wood / chestnet
Nariwal – Coconut – Coconut
Nimaro – Ficus. spp – elephant ear fig tree
Okhar – Juglans regia – Wallnut/ Madeira walnut
Painyu – Prunnus cerasoides – Cherry / Bird cherry
Pakhari – F. globerrimata –
Palash – Butea monosperma – Bastard Teak
Pan – Piper bittle – evergreen vine
Pharsi – Cucurbita maxima – Pumpkin
Phurse – Benicasa hispida – Wax Guard / Ash, white,tallow guard
Pine- Pinus spp – Pine
Pipal – F. religiosa – Secred fig tree
Potato – Solanum tubersum –
Rice – Oryza sativa –
Rudraksha – Elaeocarpus sphaericus – Ganitrus / Utrasum bead
Sal – Shorea robusta – Dammer
Sayapatri – Tagetes erecta – Marigold
Simali – Vitex negundo – Chastetree -( Akashbeli or amarbel- cuscuta reflexa Cassytha Filiformis) or
Siundi – Euphorbia royaleana – Sullu spurge / Churee / Danda Thor
Sunflower – Helianthus annus – Sun Flower
Supari – Areca catechu– Areca Palm / Areca nut Palm,Betel Tree
Swami – F. benjamina – Weeping fig / Ficus Tree
Til – Seasmum indicum – Sesame
Tite Pati – Artemisia spp – Mugwort / Wormwood
Tori – Brassica compestris – Mustard
Tulsi – Ocimum spp – Aromatic Medicinal Plant Holy Basil
Ukhu – Saccharum officinarum -Sugarcan
Day 1: Welcome at the airport (1300 masl) and transfer to hotel.
May you observe such wonderful views over the mountains. may you receive by the officers of Nepal Edumedic Travel and Trekking Company and transfer to Hotel.
Day 02: Sightseeing explores the city and prepare for the trek.
You can spend this day exploring some of the World heritage sites in Kathmandu valley – Swayambhu, Pashupati Temple, Bauddha Stupa, Daarbar square and so on. And we may prepare for the trek in the afternoon.
Day 03: Heading to Godawari Botanical Garden, where we can explore dozens of species of sacred plants. Along with such activitity, we may perceive the nature, wild lives and culture.
Day 04 – 08: We will arrange you to Typical Nalang Community, which is about 90 km from Kathmandu to the western part of Nepal in rural community where you may meet local people who are very familiar with sacred plants and trees, and they also shows you what they have been doing practices about it. You would be facilitated by priests, Natural worshipers, and traditional healers, who have been following such practice from so long time. Local people may interact with you about the sacred as well as medicinal plants and trees as well
Day 09 – 11: Preparation for the presentation what would be studied about sacred plants in Nepal and also what is the current trend in the world, along with some hiking and cultural activities. and day 11 may the presentation about the community that aim is to aware them about the importance of sacred plants and trees as medicinal plants and tress too
Day 12 – 13: You would be facilitated to Chitwan National Part with doing some wild life adventure like Elephant riding, Birds Watching, Tharu culture ( a typical cultural programe)
Day 14: Back to city and shopping
Day 15: Farewell and return back to the International Airport,